Art And Humanities
ART2362
African Art

The following is a Saylor.org art history course. This course will introduce you to the art and architecture of Africa from a Western art historical perspective. This Western perspective is influenced by developments in modern European art, which have claimed African art as an inspiration for more “primitive,” intuitive art forms. Note that the visual arts, as traditionally performed and held in various African societies, are largely incongruent with Western artistic values. For example, most traditional African art was not meant to be displayed, but rather viewed when in use and in motion, especially in mixed-media masquerades. Meanwhile, body adornment and textiles have long been important forms of visual communication and expression in Africa, whereas painting, common in Western art, is not a historically prevalent practice in many African regions.

African Art Useful Links

This is the course information for African Art.

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New World Encyclopedia website

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Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

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World Heritage Convention - UNESCO

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National Museum of African Art

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The British Museum website

Unit 1: Orientation

This unit will provide a foundation for the study of African art, familiarizing you with Africa’s history and geography, introducing terminology basic to cross-cultural studies, and demonstrating some of the overlaps and diversity in form and function of objects from different regions.

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Unit 1 Outline: Orientation

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1.1 Geography, Part 1 - Regional Map of Africa

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1.1 Geography, Part 2

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1.1 Geography, Part 3 - The Berlin Conference

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1.1 Geography, Part 4 - The Challenge of Decoloniz...

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1.1 Geography, Part 5 - Map of Africa - Worldatlas...

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1.1 Geography, Part 6 - Africa Geophysical Map - N...

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1.1 Geography, Part 7

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1.2 Aesthetics, Part 1 - African Art Exhibition Ca...

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1.2 Aesthetics, Part 2

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1.2 Aesthetics, Part 3 - What is African Art - The...

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1.2 Aesthetics, Part 4 - African Art - University...

Unit 2: The Maghreb: Nort...

Unit 2: The Maghreb: Northernmost Africa and the Sahara This section studies prehistoric rock art in the Maghreb and briefly reviews the history of the region’s development and its present-day nomadic cultures. Arab culture has affected this region, particularly through the religious influence of Islam. After conquering the Phoenicians, the Romans infiltrated North Africa, and while substantial Roman architectural ruins remain, Arabs used some of them to construct mosques. Subsequently, most mosque architecture reflects a syncretistic blend of Arab traditions and indigenous forms of building throughout Africa. Note that Muslims pray individually in an open, communal space, traditionally punctuated by a courtyard area and a minaret ascended by clergy to call the faithful to salah (daily prayers).

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Unit 2 Outline: The Maghreb: Northernmost...

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2.1 Engraved and Painted Rock Art and..., Part 1

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2.1 Engraved and Painted Rock Art and Roman Ruins,...

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2.1 Engraved and Painted Rock Art and Roman Ruins,...

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2.1 Engraved and Painted Rock Art Part 4 - Tassili...

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2.1 Engraved and Painted Rock Art and..., Part 5 -...

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2.1 Engraved and Painted Rock Art and..., Part 6 -...

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2.1 Engraved and Painted Rock Art and Roman Ruins,...

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2.1 Engraved and Painted Rock Art and Roman Ruins,...

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2.1 Engraved and Painted Rock Art Part 9 - Kairou...

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2.2 Amazigh (Berber) Arts/North African Architectu...

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2.2 Amazigh (Berber) Arts/North African Architectu...

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2.2 Amazigh (Berber) Arts/North African..., Pt 3 -...

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2.2 Amazigh (Berber) Arts/North African Architectu...

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2.2 Amazigh (Berber) Arts/North African..., Pt 5

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2.2 The National Museum of African Art webpage on ...

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2.2 Amazigh (Berber) Arts/North African Architectu...

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2.2 Amazigh (Berber) Arts/North African..., Pt 8

Unit 3: The Nile Valley

This unit will discuss how Egyptian art emphasized the notion of the king as an extension of the divine. Egyptian religion was polytheistic, and focused on a pantheon that included composite human/animal deities. While these two Egyptian notions (divine kingship and polytheism) would prove common in later cultures throughout Africa, the ancient Egyptians’ quest for monumental permanence did not. The seat of power in Egypt shifted over time. Starting in the Northern delta, royal complexes gradually moved South into Nubia, in the modern nation of Sudan, which Egyptians settled by the end of the Dynastic period in the late first millennium BCE. From there, power shifted eastward to Abyssinia – modern Ethiopia – into the Christian period.

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Unit 3 Outline: The Nile Valley

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3.1 Ancient Egypt, Part 1 - Maps of Ancient Egypt ...

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3.1 Ancient Egypt, Part 2 - Pre-Dynastic Egypt (5,...

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3.1 Ancient Egypt, Part 3 - Female Figure - Brookl...

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3.1 Ancient Egypt, Part 4 - American Historical As...

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3.1 The Metropolitan Museum of Art webpage on Anci...

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3.1 Ancient Egypt, Part 6 - Sculpture of Ancient E...

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3.1 Ancient Egypt, Part 8 - Menkaure and His Queen

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3.1 Ancient Egypt, Part 9 - Egypt: The Pyramids at...

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3.1 Ancient Egypt, Part 10 - Egypt: Valley of the ...

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3.1 Ancient Egypt, Part 11 - Egypt: Temples for Go...

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3.1 Ancient Egypt, Part 12 - Pyramids - PBS

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3.1 National Geographic webpage on Ancient Egypt, ...

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3.1 Ancient Egypt, Part 14 - Egypt in the New King...

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3.1 Ancient Egypt, Part 15 - Sculpture Types

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3.1 Ancient Egypt, Part 16 - Nefertiti - Egyptian ...

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3.1 Ancient Egypt, Part 17 - Amarna Period of King...

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3.1 Ancient Egypt, Part 18 - Tutankhamun and the G...

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3.2 The Metropolitan Museum of Art webpage on The ...

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3.2 The Kingdom of Kush and Ancient Nubia, Part 2 ...

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3.2 The Kingdom of Kush and Ancient Nubia, Part 3 ...

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3.2 The Kingdom of Kush and Ancient Nubia, Part 4 ...

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3.2 The Kingdom of Kush and Ancient Nubia, Part 5 ...

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3.3 Ethiopia and Coptic Egypt, Part 1 - Coptic Chr...

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3.3 Ethiopia and Coptic Egypt, Part 2

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3.3 Ethiopia and Coptic Egypt, Part 3 - Lalibela

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In Focus: The Lalibela Churches

Unit 4: The Sudan

Islamic movements into Nubia resulted in the emergence of the modern country of Sudan, a name derived from the Arabic bil?d as-s?d?n, “land of the Blacks.” As Arabs moved westward, “Sudan” referred to a large swath of territory extending nearly to the western and southern Atlantic coasts, crossing boundaries of several modern countries and populated with diverse ethnic groups. Today the area is heavily Muslim, though many communities integrate Islam with indigenous spiritual traditions.

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Unit 4 Outline: The Sudan

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4.1 The Nok, Part 1 - Memoire d’Afrique

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4.1 The Metropolitan Museum of Art webpage on The ...

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4.1 The Nok, Part 3 - University of California art...

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4.1 The Nok, Part 4 - Overview of the Mambila Coll...

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4.1 Art Through Time: A Global View webpage on The...

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4.1 African Art Museum webpage on The Nok, Part 6 ...

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4.1 Designboom article on The Nok, Part 7 (Musgum ...

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4.1 The Nok, Part 8 - Chirac Exalts African Art, L...

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4.1 The Nok, Part 9 - Endangered Art - Time Magazi...

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4.2 The Hausa and Fulani, Part 1 - Hausa - Univers...

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4.2 The Hausa and Fulani, Part 2

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4.2 Cicipu.org webpage on The Hausa and Fulani, Pa...

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4.2 The Hausa and Fulani, Part 4 - Gown - The Brit...

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4.2 The Hausa and Fulani, Part 5 - African Gowns -...

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4.2 The Hausa and Fulani, Part 6 - The Fulani Peop...

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4.2 The Hausa and Fulani, Part 7 - Art and the Ful...

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4.2 The Hausa and Fulani, Part 8 - Interior Hangin...

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4.2 The Hausa and Fulani, Part 9 - Wodaabe - Unive...

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Tribal Beauty Pageant -- for Men

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4.2 University of Iowa webpage on The Hausa and Fu...

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4.3 The National Museum of African Art webpage on ...

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4.3 The Museum of African Art webpage on Modern Ma...

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4.3 Modern Mali and the Surrounding Area, Part 3 -...

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Great Mosque of Djenne

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Future of Mud

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4.3 Modern Mali and the Surrounding Area, Part 6 -...

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4.3 Modern Mali and the Surrounding Area, Part 7

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4.3 Modern Mali and the Surrounding Area, Part 9 -...

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4.3 Modern Mali and the Surrounding Area, Part 10 ...

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4.3 The Metropolitan Museum of Art webpage on Mode...

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4.3 The Metropolitan Museum of Art webpage on Mode...

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4.3 Modern Mali and the Surrounding Area, Part 13

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African Carving: A Dogon Kanaga Mask - PREVIEW

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Spectacular Dogon Masquerade

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4.3 Modern Mali and the Surrounding Area, Part 16 ...

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4.3 Modern Mali and the Surrounding Area, Part 18 ...

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4.3 Modern Mali and the Surrounding Area, Part 19 ...

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4.3 Modern Mali and the Surrounding Area, Part 20 ...

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4.3 Modern Mali and the Surrounding Area, Part 21 ...

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4.3 Modern Mali and the Surrounding Area, Part 22

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4.3 Modern Mali and the Surrounding Area, Part 23

Unit 5: The Atlantic Coas...

Unit 5: The Atlantic Coastal Regions and Lower Nigeria This unit looks at several groups that came to the West as a result of the slave trade and have formed diaspora communities. The social and spiritual structures of groups in this region are diverse, ranging from autonomous communities governed by elder societies to dynastic monarchies that are still maintained within modern nations. These differences are reflected in their respective art styles.

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Unit 5 Outline: The Atlantic Coastal Regions...

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5.1 The Western Coast, Part 1 - Afro-Portuguese Iv...

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5.1 National Museum of African Art webpage on The ...

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5.1 National Museum of African Art webpage on The ...

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5.1 The Western Coast, Part 4 - Baga - Metropolita...

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5.1 The Western Coast, Part 5 - Mende People

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Sierra Leone Heritage : Sowei Mask : Curator's Not...

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5.1 The Western Coast, Part 7 - Sande Masquerades:...

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Sowei Dance

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5.1 The Western Coast, Part 9 - The Lone Star: The...

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5.1 The Western Coast, Part 10 - Dan - The Metropo...

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5.1 The Western Coast, Part 11 - Dan Gunyege Runne...

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5.1 UNESCO webpage on The Western Coast, Part 12

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5.1 The Western Coast, Part 13

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5.2 Ghana and the Surrounding Region, Part 1 - Gha...

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5.2 National Museum of African Art webpage on Ghan...

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5.2 Ghana and the Surrounding Region, Part 3 - Rev...

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5.2 National Museum of African Art webpage on Ghan...

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5.2 Ghana and the Surrounding Region, Part 5 - The...

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5.2 Ghana and the Surrounding Region, Part 6 - Man...

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5.2 Ghana and the Surrounding Region, Part 7 - The...

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5.2 Ghana and the Surrounding Region, Part 8 - Gol...

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5.2 Ghana and the Surrounding Region, Part 9 - Wei...

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5.2 The Museum of Fine Arts webpage on Ghana and t...

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5.2 Ghana and the Surrounding Region, Part 11 - As...

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5.2 Ghana and the Surrounding Region, Part 12 - Fa...

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5.2 Ghana and the Surrounding Region, Part 13 - Ak...

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5.2 Ghana and the Surrounding Region, Part 14 - Ak...

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5.3.1 Yoruba, Fon, and Benin City, Part 1 - Yoruba...

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5.3.1 The Metropolitan Museum of Art webpage on Yo...

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5.3.1 Museum for African Art webpage on Yoruba, Fo...

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5.3.1 Yoruba, Fon, and Benin City, Part 4 - Hidden...

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5.3.1 National Museum of African Art webpage on Yo...

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5.3.1 The Metropolitan Museum of Art webpage on Yo...

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5.3.1 Yoruba, Fon, and Benin City, Part 7 - Ere Ib...

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5.3.1 Bryn Mawr College webpage on Yoruba, Fon, an...

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5.3.1 Yoruba, Fon, and Benin City, Part 9 - Dance ...

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5.3.1 Indianapolis Museum of Art webpage on Yoruba...

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Bolaji Campbell on Egungun

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Bolaji Campbell on African art

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Bolaji Campbell on the Body

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5.3.2 The Fon (Dahomey), Part 1 - Wonders: Ashanti...

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5.3.2 The Fon (Dahomey), Part 2 - Kings of Abomey

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5.3.2 The Fon (Dahomey), Part 3 - Joyful Blues: Yo...

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5.3.2 The Fon (Dahomey), Part 4 - Origins and Empi...

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5.3.2 The Fon (Dahomey), Part 5 - Benin Chronology...

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5.3.2 The Fon (Dahomey), Part 6 - African Lost Wax...

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5.3.2 Edo-Nation webpage on The Fon (Dahomey), Par...

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5.3.2 The Fon (Dahomey), Part 9

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5.3.3 National Museum of African Art webpage on Th...

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5.3.3 The Metropolitan Museum of Art webpage on Th...

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5.3.3 The Igbo, Part 3 - Photographs from Igbo Mus...

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5.3.3 The Igbo, Part 4

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5.3.3 The Igbo, Part 5 - Photographic Indexes

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5.3.3 The Igbo, Part 6 - Ijele Masquerade - UNESCO

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5.3.3 The Igbo, Part 7 - Honoring your Ancestors

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5.3.3 The Igbo, Part 8 - Mbari Houses: Photographs...

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5.3.3 National Museum of African Art article on Th...

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5.3.3 The Igbo, Part 10

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5.3.4 “Mami Wata,” Part 1 - Mami Wata: Arts for Wa...

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5.3.4 “Mami Wata,” Part 2 - Snake Charm: A Diva Co...

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5.4 Special Topics, Part 1

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5.4 Special Topics, Part 2 - Ivory Coast - New Yor...

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5.4 Special Topics, Part 3 - African Artworks in B...

Unit 6: Central Africa

A number of groups reside across the boundaries of modern eastern Nigeria and Cameroon along the Cross River. In Cameroon, several ethnically and culturally related kingship societies nonetheless are distinct by tradition. In the colonial period, the “Congo” region encompassed the modern nations of the Republic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The Kongo peoples (including several sub-groups) extend across the borders of these nations. This background is important to keep in mind when trying to categorize the works of the various groups this unit examines, because there are not always clear differences in style or type, and there is much interaction between the two groups.

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Unit 6 Outline: Central Africa

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Ejagham

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6.1 Cameroon and Gabon, Part 2 - Ejagham Headdress...

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6.1 Cameroon and Gabon, Part 3 - Arts from Central...

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6.1 University of California video on Cameroon and...

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6.1 Cameroon and Gabon, Part 5

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6.1 Cameroon and Gabon, Part 6

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6.1 The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art webpage on Ca...

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African Leopard Caryatid Stool

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6.1 Cameroon and Gabon, Part 9 - Appropriation and...

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6.1 Cameroon and Gabon, Part 10 - Bangwa Figure - ...

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6.1 Cameroon and Gabon, Part 11 - Bamileke - For A...

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6.1 Cameroon and Gabon, Part 12 - Bamileke (Kuosi ...

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6.1 National Museum of African Art webpage on Came...

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6.1 Cameroon and Gabon, Part 14 - Reliquary Figure...

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6.1 Cameroon and Gabon, Part 15 - Reliquary Head (...

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6.1 Cameroon and Gabon, Part 16 - Kota - The Unive...

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6.1 Cameroon and Gabon, Part 17 - Kota - Metropoli...

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6.2.1 The Kongo Peoples, Part 1 - African Christia...

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6.2.1 The Kongo Peoples, Part 2 - Nail Figure - Ar...

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6.2.1 The Kongo Peoples, Part 3

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6.2.1 The Kongo Peoples, Part 4 - Power Figure (Nk...

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6.2.1 The Kongo Peoples, Part 5 - Figure: Mother a...

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6.2.1 The Kongo Peoples, Part 6 - Royal Scepter: M...

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6.2.1 The Kongo Peoples, Part 7 - Power Figure (Nk...

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6.2.2 The Chokwe, Part 1 - Seated Chief (Mwanangar...

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6.2.2 The Chokwe, Part 2 - The Makishi Masquerade ...

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6.2.2 The Chokwe, Part 3 - Mwana Pwo Mask

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6.2.3 The Kuba, Part 1 - Kingdoms of the Savanna -...

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6.2.3 The Kuba, Part 2 - Kuba Yet Belt

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6.2.3 The Kuba, Part 3 - Female Face Mask - Neuber...

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6.2.3 The Kuba, Part 4

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6.2.3 The Kuba, Part 5

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6.2.4 Other Groups in the Democratic Republic of t...

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6.2.4 Other Groups in the Democratic Republic of t...

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6.2.4 Other Groups in the Democratic Republic of t...

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6.2.4 Other Groups in the Democratic Republic of t...

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6.2.4 Other Groups in the Democratic Republic of C...

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6.2.4 Other Groups in the Democratic Republic of C...

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6.2.4 Other Groups in the Democratic Republic of C...

Unit 7: Eastern and South...

Swahili is an indigenous East African language and culture that has been influenced by several centuries of trade with and hegemonic infiltration by Indian and Arab Islamic culture, as seen in the region’s architecture. Note that other indigenous groups with strong ethnic identities extending west from the coast remain in the region. However, this course’s discussion of these groups is limited due to a lack of accessible examples. Note that South Africa was the last African country to maintain legal apartheid (overturned in 1994) and retain white European rule from the early colonial era. These influences took a toll on the livelihood of traditional arts crafted by the region’s people. As a result, we will focus on this area’s early art, with a few limited examples of more recent objects.

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Unit 7 Outline: Eastern and Southern Africa

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7.1 Eastern Africa, Part 1 - The Swahili Coast - P...

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7.1 Eastern Africa, Part 2

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7.1 Eastern Africa, Part 3

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7.1 Eastern Africa, Part 4 - Lamu Old Town - UNESC...

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7.1 Eastern Africa, Part 5 - Traditional Swahili A...

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7.1 Eastern Africa, Part 7 - Kingdoms of Madagasca...

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7.1 Eastern Africa, Part 8

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7.1 National Geographic Society videos on Eastern ...

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Masai traditional dances

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7.2 Southern Africa, Part 1 - Rock Art Research In...

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7.2 PBS article on Southern Africa, Part 2

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7.2 Southern Africa, Part 3 - Lydenburg Heads - Me...

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7.2 Southern Africa, Part 4 - Mystery of Great Zim...

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7.2 Southern Africa, Part 5 - Inside and Outside t...

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Great.Zimbabwe.(Ancient.City).HISTORIA Pt 1

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7.2 Southern Africa, Part 8 - Zulu article - Unive...

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7.2 Southern Africa, Part 9 - Beadwork of the Ndeb...

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7.2 Smithsonian Institution webpage on Southern Af...

Unit 8: Contemporary Afri...

In this unit, we will learn about the spread of African art forms and contemporary African artists. These are starting points for further investigation. In discussing and analyzing contemporary African art, critics have focused on the extent to which expressions of ethnic and cultural heritage may be intended by particular artists. Pay attention to how the modern works discussed are described and contextualized through references to past art as well as to modern art of the West. Also note how the artists themselves (when applicable) and commentators describe the meanings and inspirations in these works.

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Unit 8 Outline: Contemporary African Artists

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8.1 Modern Art Forms and the Diaspora, Part 1 - Af...

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8.1 St. John Historical Society article on Modern ...

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8.1 Diaspora Art & Other Matters conversation rega...

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8.2 Contemporary African Art, Part 1 - Art Collect...

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8.2 Contemporary African Art, Part 2 - Zwelethu Mt...

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8.2 Contemporary African Art, Part 3 - New Works b...

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8.2 Contemporary African Art, Part 4 - Okwui Enwez...

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8.2 National Museum of African Art article on Cont...

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8.2 Contemporary African Art, Part 6 - Yinka Shoni...

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8.2 National Museum of African Art article on Cont...

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8.2 Contemporary African Art, Part 8

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Weapons to art - CNN - Mozambique

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8.2 Seema Bawa's article on Contemporary African A...

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Ouattara Watts

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8.2 Uneven Development webpage on Contemporary Afr...

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8.2 Contemporary African Art, Part 13