Art And Humanities
ART2608
Baroque Art to Neoclassicism

The following is a Saylor.org course. This course will examine the history of Western art from approximately 1600 to approximately 1800—a period that bridges the gap from the Renaissance to the earliest days of the Modern era. Beginning with the Baroque in Counter-Reformation Italy and concluding with Neoclassicism in the late 18th century, we will trace the stylistic developments in Europe and America through a variety of religious, political, and philosophical movements. The class begins with the Baroque, which was the immediate successor to the Renaissance and to Renaissance humanism, and we will examine this period by regions (Italy and Spain, the Netherlands, and France and England). Next, the course moves on to explore the development of two opposing styles that emerged in the 18th century: Rococo and Enlightenment art.

Baroque Art to Neoclassic...

This is the course information for Baroque Art to Neoclassicism.

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SmartHistory website

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National Gallery of Art website

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Google Cultural Institute Art Project

Unit 1: Baroque Art in It...

This unit will introduce students to Italian art from around 1600 as Italian art transitioned away from the ideals of the Renaissance period toward something new. Much of the art produced in Italy at this time was influenced by the crisis of the Catholic Church, as it was challenged by the Reformation. It sought to fight this challenge with its own movement, known as the Counter-Reformation. To promote its cause, the Catholic Church commissioned religious art that sought to move and inspire the masses. The young artist Caravaggio emerged in this environment and exerted enormous influence on Baroque art around Europe. Nearby Spain—also a bastion of the Counter-Reformation—dealt with similar issues as its Italian neighbors, although it was informed by its own distinct artistic heritage.

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Bernini's David

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Caravaggio's Narcissus at the Source

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Bernini's Pluto and Proserpina

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Caravaggio, Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Franc...

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Caravaggio's Crucifixion of Saint Peter

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Bernini's Apollo and Daphne

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Velázquez's Los Borrachos

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Bernini's Bust of Medusa

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Velázquez's Vulcan's Forge

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Bernini's Cathedra Petri

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Caravaggio’s Deposition, or Entombment

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Caravaggio’s Calling of St. Matthew

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Bernini, Sant' Andrea al Quirinale

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Unit 1: Baroque Art in Italy and Spain: Q&A

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Unit 1 Outline: Baroque Art in Italy and Spain

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1.1 Introduction to Western Art: 1600–1800: Q&A

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Professor Robert Baldwin's essays on an Introducti...

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Professor Robert Baldwin's essays on Caravaggio: C...

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Web Gallery of Art biography on and paintings by A...

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Self-Portrait as the Allegory of Painting

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Web Gallery of Art biographyon Annibale Carracci a...

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Professor Robert Baldwin's essay on Carracci's Far...

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Video: Carracci’s Ceiling of the Farnese Palace

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art article on Gian Lor...

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Bernini’s David

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Bernini’s Ecstasy of St. Theresa

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Professor Robert Baldwin's essays on "Ecstasy of S...

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art article on Baroque ...

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Carlo Maderno and His Architecture

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Video: Carlo Maderno and the Italian Baroque

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Professor Robert Balwin's essay on Bernini Piazza ...

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Video: Bernini: St. Peter's Piazza

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Francesco Borromini and His Architecture

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Web Gallery of Art article on an Overview of Spani...

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Web Gallery of Art article on Baroque Painting: Th...

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Web Gallery of Art article on Juan Sanchez Cotán a...

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Web Gallery of Art article on Life and Art of Dieg...

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Web Gallery of Art article on Sculpture in Spain: ...

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Activity: Museum Visit #1: “Gemäldegalerie in Berl...

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Comparing and Contrasting Caravaggio or Velázquez ...

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ARTH207 Writing Assessment 1: Guide to Responding

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Caravaggio, Calling of Saint Matthew and Inspirati...

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Borromini's San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane

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Bernini's Ecstasy of Saint Teresa

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Velázquez - Las Meninas

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Video: Carracci’s Crucifixion & Lamentation

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Video: Introduction to Italian Baroque Architectur...

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Video: Gianlorenzo Bernini and Italian Baroque Arc...

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Video: Francesco Borromini and the Italian Baroque

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The Guardian article on The Sacred Made Real: Span...

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art video on Velázquez ...

Unit 2: Baroque Art in th...

In this unit, we move on to look at Baroque art as it emerged in the Netherlands. In the Baroque period, the Netherlands was split into the Northern Netherlands (the Dutch Republic) and the Southern Netherlands (Flanders). Flanders was Catholic, whereas the Dutch Republic was Protestant; therefore, there is a sharp divide in the subject matter and styles of Baroque art in each region. Nonetheless, the two regions remained geographically and historically connected and shared an earlier Renaissance tradition that influenced the art of each region. Although Baroque art in the Netherlands has a distinctly local flair, there is clear evidence of Italian influence, suggesting the international character of Baroque art.

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Young Woman with a Water Pitcher

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Flanders: Ruben’s The Elevation of the Cross

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Unit 2: Baroque Art in the Netherlands: Q&A

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Unit 2 Outline: Baroque Art in the Netherlands

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Web Gallery of Art webpage on an Overview of Baroq...

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Professor Robert Baldwin's essay on Rubens Massacr...

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iTunes U podcast on Constantine Investing His Son ...

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art article on Rubens a...

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Learn Out Loud podcast Lecture: Charles I

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The Metropolitan Muesum of Art article on Still-Li...

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National Museum of Women in the Arts article on Cl...

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Web Gallery of Art biography of and paintings by F...

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Web Gallery of Art biography of and paiting by Jan...

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Jan de Heem and the Baroque Still Life

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Professor Robert Baldwin's essays on Dutch Baroque...

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art article on Genre Pa...

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Web Gallery of Art biography on and paintings by H...

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National Gallery of Art podcast on Hendrick ter Br...

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art article on Frans Ha...

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The National Gallery Podcast on Dutch Portraits: T...

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Web Gallery of Art articles on Judith Leyster and...

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art Introduction to Rem...

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iTunesU: The Metropolitan Museum of Art - Age of R...

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Sophia: Ian McConnell's lecture on Rembrandt: The ...

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Sophia: Erin Aldana's lecture on Rembrandt: Dutch ...

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Khan Academy videos on Works of Art by Rembrandt

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art article on Johannes...

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Professor Robert Baldwin's essays on Vermeer: Alle...

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iTunes U Special Exhibition: Vermeer's Masterpiece...

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National Gallery of Art video on Vermeer: Master o...

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Web Gallery of Art biography of and paintings by J...

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Web Gallery of Art biography on Gerard ter Borch

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Professor Robert Baldwin's essay on Ter Borch: Lad...

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Vermeer's Masterpi...

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Web Gallery of Art biography on and paintings by J...

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Professor Robert Baldwin's essay on Dutch Still Li...

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Willem Claesz Heda and the Dutch Baroque Still Lif...

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art paintings by Pieter...

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John and Willem Jan Hoogsteder's article on Rachel...

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The Detriot Institute of Arts video on Flowers in ...

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Rachel Ruysch and Dutch Baroque Still Life Paintin...

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Baroque Art in the Netherlands: Museum Visit

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Video: 1600-1700 The Baroque

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Constantine Investing His Son Crispus with Command...

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Anthony van Dyck: Charles I

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artwis.com article on Clara Peeters: A Hidden Marr...

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Clara Peeters and the Flemish Still Life

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Frans Snyders and the Flemish Still Life

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artwis.com article on Portrait Painters in Rembran...

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Dutch Baroque Landscape Painting

Unit 3: Baroque Art in Fr...

In this unit, we turn to Baroque art produced in France and England. In France, much as in the Netherlands, art is greatly influenced by Baroque art in Italy—albeit tinged with the unique social and political conditions of its own culture. The influence of Caravaggio is felt here as elsewhere, but the unique role of the monarchy resulted in a courtly style unique to France that culminated with the art and architecture produced for Louis XIV. In England, there was less of a local painting tradition and the Baroque is mainly expressed via architecture, which borrows from Italy and France to create a distinct English Baroque architecture.

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Poussin's Landscape

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Unit 3: Baroque Art in France and England: Q&A

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Unit 3 Outline: Baroque Art in France and England

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art website on French A...

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art biography on Nicola...

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Professor Robert Baldwin's essays on Venus Lamenti...

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Keith Christiansen's video on Nicolas Poussin and ...

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Canal Educatif à la Demande: History of Arts video...

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Web Gallery of Art biography on Claude Lorraine

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Claude Lorraine’s The Judgment of Paris

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The Blanton Museum of Art iTunes U on Claude Lorra...

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Web Gallery of Art introduction to the Works of Ge...

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Georges de la Tour and French Baroque Painting

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Web Gallery of Art biography on and paintings by S...

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France 1600-1700: Louis XIV

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art article on French D...

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Professor Robert Baldwin's essay on Louis XIV: Ver...

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Museum Visit: French Baroque

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Inigo Jones and Palladianism in English Baroque Ar...

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The Royal Society: Lisa Jardine: "Christopher Wren...

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Claude Lorraine's Landscapes

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Misty Amanda Vangergriff's article on The Realism ...

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Simon Vouet and French Baroque Painting

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French Baroque under Louis XIV

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Introduction to Art of the Rococo

Unit 4: Rococo

On the heels of the Baroque, a new style (the Rococo) emerged—a style that was at once more intimate and more ostentatious that the Baroque. The heart of this movement was in France, where it was produced for the personal enjoyment of the most elite patrons, although it did spread to other parts of Europe and to the American colonies. Generally speaking, Rococo art is sumptuous and decadent. Eschewing the religious and genre scenes of the Baroque, Rococo art favored subjects involving pleasure and fantasy. Although this style did enjoy popularity outside of France, it is most associated with the elite circles of the French aristocracy and was soon replaced with a more sober artistic aesthetic.

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Fragonard's The Meeting

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Boucher's Madame de Pompadour

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Tiepolo Family

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Unit 4: Rococo: Q&A

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Unit 4 Outline: Rococo

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Overview of Rococo

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Professor Robert Badlwin's essay on the Introducti...

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art article on American...

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Professor Robert Baldwin's essay on Jean-Antoine W...

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art article on the Life...

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art iTunes U Watteau an...

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Professor Robert Baldwin's essay on Francois Bouch...

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art biography and Life ...

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Professor Robert Baldwin's essay on Jean-Honoré Fr...

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National Gallery of Art iTunes U Colin B. Bailey's...

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Museum Visit: Fragonard Room at the Frick Collecti...

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art biography on Giovan...

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Writing Assessment: Compare "The Meeting" and "The...

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Writing Assessment: Guide to Responding.

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Boucher’s Venus Consoling Love

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Fragonard, The Swing

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The Rococo in Italy: Tiepolo

Unit 5: The Enlightenment

As the Rococo style enjoyed popularity in France, another, more serious-minded style was emerging in tandem with the scientific and philosophical developments of the Enlightenment. In stark contrast to the frivolity and gaiety of the Rococo, art of the Enlightenment period is sentimental, moralizing, and—at times—satirical. Mirroring the rapid political and scientific changes of the time, art of this period shows a greater interest in social concerns, morality, justice, and human progress. During the Enlightenment, the issues we often associate with the Modern era begin to emerge, and these issues are palpable in the period’s art.

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Vigée Le Brun's Madame Perregaux

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Reynolds's Lady Cockburn & Her Three Eldest Sons

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Unit 5: The Enlightenment: Q&A

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Unit 5 Outline: The Enlightenment

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Professor Robert Baldwin's essay on Family Values ...

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art article on the Eigh...

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1700-1800 Age of Enlightenment

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Web Gallery of Art article on Jean-Baptiste-Siméon...

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Professor Robert Baldwin's essay on Jean-Baptiste-...

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Web Gallery of Art biography of and paintings by J...

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Greuze’s Genre Painting and Professor Baldwin's e...

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Jean-Baptiste Greuze

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Web Gallery of Art biography of and paintings by L...

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SUNY College Dr. Allen Farber's article on Elisabe...

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art biography on Adélai...

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art biography on Adélai...

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art article on career o...

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Web Gallery of Art pictures of Houdon's "Bust of D...

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Art History Unstuffed: Dr. Jeanne S. M. Willette's...

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art article on Art and ...

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Web Gallery of Art biography on William Hogarth an...

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Hogarth's A Rake's Progress

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Professor Robert Baldwin's Marriage a la Mode and ...

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Web Gallery of Art biography and paitings by Josep...

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Professor Baldwin's essay on the Wright of Derby a...

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Joseph Wright of Derby

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Web Gallery of Art biography and pictures on and b...

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Web Gallery of Art biography and photos of Sir Jos...

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Web Gallery of Art biography and photos of Benjami...

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art article on the Stud...

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Benjamin West

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art article and slidesh...

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Web Gallery of Art pictures by Canaletto

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Lof der Zotheid video on Canaletto in England: A V...

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Museum Visit: Enlightenment Art

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Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin: Rococo with Restrain...

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Adélaide Labille-Guiard

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Jean-Antoine Houdon

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William Hogarth

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Thomas Gainsborough

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Sir Joshua Reynolds

Unit 6: Neoclassicism

This final unit culminates with the emergence of Neoclassicism. Something of an extension of (and logical next stage of) the Age of Enlightenment, Neoclassicism coincides with several political developments and conflicts—most notably, the American and French revolutions. Looking to classical antiquity as an ideal of artistic, political, and moral virtue, artists (among others) developed a new (“neo”) classical tradition that suited the political climate of the time. Subject matter, style, medium, and genre were all borrowed from Classical antiquity but were overlaid with contemporary subjects and tastes.

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Unit 6: Neoclassicism: Q&A

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Unit 6 Outline: Neoclassicism

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The Metropolitan Museum article on an Overview of ...

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Neo-Classicism

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Art History Unstuffed: Dr. Jeanne S. M. Willette's...

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Web Gallery of Art biography of Angelica Kauffmann...

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David’s Death of Marat

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Professor Robert Baldwin's essay on David's Death ...

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art articles on The Leg...

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Jacques-Louis David "Death of Socrates," 1787

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Art History Unstuffed: Dr. Jeanne S. M. Willette's...

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Web Gallery of Art article on Antonio Canova and p...

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Art History Unstuffed: Dr. Jeanne S. M. Willette's...

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Canova's Paolina Borghese as Venus Victorius

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European Neoclassical Sculpture

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Neoclassical Architecture in France and Jacques-Ge...

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art articles on an Intr...

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art article and slidesh...

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art sketch on John Sing...

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John Singleton Copley, The Copley Family

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John Singleton Copley's Watson and the Shark

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art biography on Gilber...

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Web Gallery of Art Washington oil on canvas and br...

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Architect of the Capitol article on John Trumbull'...

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art article on American...

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Boston College's Professor Jeffery Howe's four var...

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Web Gallery of Art George Washington sculpture acc...

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Colonial Williamsburg Official History Site presen...

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The Papers of Thomas Jefferson: The Politics of Ar...

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Bluffton University Mary Ann Sullivan's Images of ...

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Information on the architects of the Capitol: Dr. ...

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Architect of the Capitol's video on The History of...

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Museum Visit: The Palace of Versailles and Alte Na...

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Writing Assessment: One Image as Representative of...

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Guide to Responding: One Image as Representative o...

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David's The Emperor Napoleon In His Study at the T...

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Jacques-Louis David's Oath of the Horatii

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Introduction to Neoclassicism

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Neoclassical Architecture in Europe

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Copley, A Boy with a Flying Squirrel (Henry Pelham...

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Copley's "A Boy with a Squirrel (Henry Pelham)"

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Jacques-Louis David's Oath of the Horatii